The role and place of ghrelin in the pathology of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

A.A. Kudryavtsev

Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education

To date, diseases of the digestive system remain one of the most pressing problems of modern medicine. Much attention is paid to the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of these pathologies. In recent years, new hormones and neurotransmitters have been discovered that regulate energy metabolism and nutritional behavior, including ghrelin — a gastrointestinal hormone that has various biological features and effects: stimulates the release of growth hormone, stimulates appetite, has an effect on appetite, metabolism. The main site of ghrelin synthesis is the stomach, the duodenum in 2 place, less pronounced concentrations are determined in the entire gastrointestinal tract, but decrease in the distal direction. Scientists have shown that ghrelin affects appetite not only by direct signaling to the rhombus brain, but also through the vagus nerve, since its efferent pathways stimulate the release of ghrelin.

At the present stage, the biological effects of ghrelin are known, namely the regulation of appetite, anabolic effects, the influence on hormone secretion, the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal tract, bone tissue, and has the ability to inhibit immunoglobulin E. The study of ghrelin concentration in blood plasma in patients with GERD and type 2 diabetes mellitus in young people was part of our study. It is shown that the concentration of ghrelin decreases with various metabolic processes, including with type 2 diabetes.

To obtain results, we examined four groups of patients with GERD with concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus of mild to moderate severity and isolated GERD. We found that the background of conducting a 4-week course of treatment in patients of all four groups increased the level of ghrelin and decreased indicators of oxidative stress.The obtained data made it possible to clarify the relationship of ghrelin with oxidative stress in the presence of comorbid course of GERD with type 2 diabetes in young people. Thus, the results obtained during the study indicate that ghrelin plays an important role in the formation of a comorbid course of GERD with type 2 diabetes in young people and conclude that changes in ghrelin levels are one of the factors that significantly burden the clinical course of GERD with type 2 diabetes.

It should also be noted that, at the same time as the normalization of ghrelin levels in groups of patients with type 2 diabetes, there was a clear tendency to stabilize the glycemic profile, indicating a close relationshipbetween this hormone and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

The data obtained suggest that, first, ghrelin plays an important role in the pathogenesis and clinical course ofthis comorbid pathology; second, changes in ghrelin levels and oxidative stress are one of the triggers of GERDin combination with type 2 diabetes in young people, and thirdly, ghrelin contributes to the clinical course ofeach disease.Thus, an increase in blood ghrelin leads to a decrease in oxidative stress — a decrease in the level ofthiobarbituric acid in the blood and an increase in superoxide dismutase, as well as a decrease in the diameterof the intestinal trunk and the blood flow velocity in it in all patient groups. Moreover, the higher the ghrelinlevel, the less were the indicators of oxidative stress, and with the additional appointment of actovegin, they arealmost equal to the patients in the control group.

Key Words: ghrelin, oxidative stress, gastroesophageal reflux disease, digestive diseases, actovegin.

https://dx.doi.org/10.15407/internalmed2019.02.090

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For citing:

  1. Кудрявцев, А.А. Роль та місце греліну в патології захворювань органів шлунково-кишкового тракту // Східноєвропейський журнал внутрішньої та сімейної медицини. – 2019. – № 2. – С. 90-100. doi: 10.15407/internalmed2019.02.090
  2. Kudryavtsev AA. [The Role And Place Of Ghrelin In The Pathology Of Diseases Of The Gastrointestinal Tract]. Shidnoevr. z. vnutr. simejnoi med. 2019;2:90-100. doi: 10.15407/internalmed2019.02.090. Ukrainian.

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